Novel kruppel-like factor is induced by neuronal activity and by sensory input in the central nervous system of the terrestrial slug Limax valentianus

J Neurobiol. 2006 Feb 5;66(2):169-81. doi: 10.1002/neu.20210.


In the Limax central nervous system, the procerebrum is thought to be the locus of odor information processing and odor memory retention, but little is known about the input pathway of the noxious stimuli used in this learning protocol. To gain insight into the sensory information processing of the noxious stimuli involved in memory formation, we screened genes induced by artificial neuronal activity, and identified one kruppel-like factor (KLF) family transcription factor gene (Limax KLF; limKLF), which is up-regulated 30 min after depolarization. The limKLF protein fused to GFP was localized to the nucleus in COS-7 cells. We also cloned an immediate early gene, CCAAT enhancer binding protein (C/EBP), of Limax by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Both genes were up-regulated by dissection of the central nervous system (CNS) out of the slug in a protein synthesis-independent manner, and also by various noxious stimuli to the slug's body. These genes may be useful as neuronal activity markers in Limax to visualize activated sensory nervous systems.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Aplysia / genetics
  • Base Sequence
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Blotting, Western
  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins / metabolism
  • COS Cells
  • Central Nervous System / physiology*
  • Chlorocebus aethiops
  • Gene Expression
  • Gene Expression Profiling
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Learning / physiology*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Mollusca / genetics*
  • Neurons, Afferent / physiology*
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sequence Homology


  • CCAAT-Enhancer-Binding Proteins
  • Kruppel-Like Transcription Factors

Associated data

  • GENBANK/AB185103
  • GENBANK/AB185104