Performance monitoring, an indispensable prerequisite of goal-directed, flexible behavior has attracted the interest of many researchers. Performance monitoring impairment may result in major daily-life problems in neurological and psychiatric patients. In this paper, I review the recent advances in clinical studies on performance monitoring in different populations of neurological and psychiatric patients. The findings are discussed with respect to current models of performance monitoring that have mostly arisen from correlational approaches. Moreover, perspectives for clinical use are given and methodological issues for patient studies of performance monitoring will be discussed.