The spontaneous or targeted deletion of the nuclear receptor transcription factor Nr2e1 produces a mouse that shows hypoplasia of the hippocampal formation and reduced neurogenesis in adult mice. In these studies we show that hippocampal synaptic transmission appears normal in the dentate gyrus and cornu ammonis 1 subfields of adult mice that lack Nr2e1 (Nr2e1-/-), and that fEPSP shape, paired-pulse responses, and short-term plasticity are not substantially altered in either subfield. In contrast, the expression of long-term potentiation is selectively impaired in the dentate gyrus, and not in the cornu ammonis 1 subfield. Golgi analysis revealed that there was a significant reduction in both dendritic branching and dendritic length that was specific to dentate gyrus granule cells in the Nr2e1-/- mice. These results indicate that Nr2e1 deletion can significantly alter both synaptic plasticity and dendritic structure in the dentate gyrus.