Analysis of Salmonella spp. with resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones isolated in North America and Latin America: report from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1997-2004)

Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2006 Jan;54(1):13-21. doi: 10.1016/j.diagmicrobio.2005.06.013. Epub 2005 Nov 14.


Emerging antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella spp. requires increased efforts to appropriately test susceptibility. The SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program monitored Salmonella spp. and detected nalidixic acid-resistant strains with elevated fluoroquinolone minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) results and strains with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) "phenotypes" over the last 8 years. A total of 786 stool and bloodstream isolates from North American and Latin American medical centers (2001-2003) were tested by reference broth microdilution methods. Genetic analysis was used to further characterize the resistance mechanisms. Twenty-one sites forwarded 89 (11.3%) nalidixic acid-resistant (MIC, > or =32 microg/mL) strains. Nineteen of these isolates were studied to determine mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR). Among the nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella spp. isolates, fluoroquinolone MIC values were also elevated (8- to 32-fold) compared with "wild-type" strains. Ciprofloxacin and gatifloxacin (MIC(90), 0.5 microg/mL) were more potent than levofloxacin and garenoxacin (1 microg/mL) against nalidixic acid-resistant strains. Single gyrA mutations were responsible for elevated fluoroquinolone MIC values and included D87Y (5), S83F (7), D87N (5), and S83Y (2). During 2001, 9 sites contributed 11 (2.9%) strains that met ESBL screening criteria (> or =2 microg/mL) for aztreonam or ceftazidime or ceftriaxone. ESBL confirmation was evaluated by Etest (AB BIODISK, Solna, Sweden) ESBL strips and the enzymes were characterized by polymerase chain reaction and gene sequencing. The ESBL phenotype isolates had the following MIC patterns: ceftazidime (> or =16 microg/mL), aztreonam (4 to >16 microg/mL), and ceftriaxone (8-32 microg/mL). All strains were susceptible to cefepime, carbapenems, gentamicin, and fluoroquinolones. No strains were inhibited by clavulanic acid consistent with all isolates producing the identified CMY-2, AmpC-like enzyme. Fluoroquinolones may be compromised among isolates with QRDR mutations detected using nalidixic acid as a screening agent. Salmonella spp. with ESBL phenotypes were likely to harbor CMY-2 (not an ESBL) and remain susceptible to cefepime, carbapenems, and fluoroquinolones, which can be used for serious invasive Salmonella spp. infections. Compared with the stool culture isolates, the blood culture isolates had higher QRDR mutations, but remained susceptible to the fluoroquinolones. The blood culture isolates were more susceptible to penicillins (ampicillin and ticarcillin) and not significantly different for ceftriaxone or trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole susceptibility patterns. No QRDR trends over time were detected in North America, but increased resistance was observed in Latin America.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology*
  • Cephalosporins / pharmacology*
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial*
  • Fluoroquinolones / pharmacology*
  • Latin America / epidemiology
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • North America / epidemiology
  • Salmonella / drug effects*
  • Salmonella / enzymology
  • Salmonella / isolation & purification
  • Salmonella Infections / epidemiology*
  • Salmonella Infections / microbiology
  • Sentinel Surveillance


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Cephalosporins
  • Fluoroquinolones