The customised electronic nebuliser: a new category of liquid aerosol drug delivery systems

Expert Opin Drug Deliv. 2005 Mar;2(2):377-90. doi: 10.1517/17425247.2.2.377.


Inhalation of aerosols is the preferred route of administration of pharmaceutical compounds to the lungs when treating various respiratory diseases. Inhaled antibiotics, hormones, peptides and proteins are potential candidates for direct targeting to the site of action, thus minimising systemic absorption, dilution and undesired side effects, as much lower doses (as low as a fiftieth) are sufficient to achieve a similar therapeutic effect, compared with oral administration. A quick relief from the symptoms and a good tolerance are the main advantages of aerosol therapy. A new class of electronic delivery device is now starting to enter the market. The eFlow electronic nebuliser (PARI GmbH, Germany) provides improved portability and, in some instances, cuts treatment time to only a fraction of what has been experienced with current nebulised therapy. Drug formulations and the device can be mutually adapted and matched for optimal characteristics to meet the desired therapeutic target. Reformulation of known and proven compounds in a liquid format are commercially attractive as they present a relatively low development risk for potential drug candidates and, thus, have become a preferred pathway for the development of new inhalation products.

MeSH terms

  • Administration, Inhalation
  • Aerosols
  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents / chemistry
  • Chemistry, Pharmaceutical
  • Drug Delivery Systems / instrumentation*
  • Equipment Design
  • Humans
  • Metered Dose Inhalers
  • Nebulizers and Vaporizers / standards*
  • Powders
  • Solutions
  • Ultrasonics
  • Vibration


  • Aerosols
  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents
  • Powders
  • Solutions