Human tyrosyl- and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetases (TyrRS and TrpRS, respectively) link protein synthesis to signal-transduction pathways, including angiogenesis. Fragments of TyrRS stimulate angiogenesis, whereas those of TrpRS (T2-TrpRS) inhibit angiogenesis. Thus, these two synthetases acquired opposing activities during evolution, possibly as a coordinated mechanism for regulating angiogenesis. The recent identification of the cellular target of T2-TrpRS sheds light into the mechanism of angiogenesis inhibition. This mechanism provides a molecular basis for the lack of effect of T2-TrpRS on the normal vasculature. With these features, we suggest that this fragment of a tRNA synthetase might safely be used to arrest neovascularization of tumors. In particular, an anti-angiogenesis agent that stops the growth of tumor vessels without affecting normal vessels might serve as an adjunct to cytotoxic therapy.