We tested the hypotheses that catalase activity is modified by CAT single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (-262;-844), and by their interactions with oxidant exposures (coal dusts, smoking), lymphotoxin alpha (LTA, NcoI) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF, -308) in 196 miners. Erythrocyte catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured. The CAT -262 SNP was related to lower catalase activity (104, 87 and 72 k/g hemoglobin for CC, CT and TT, respectively, p < 0.0001). Regardless of CAT SNPs, the LTA NcoI but not the TNF-308 SNP was associated with catalase activity (p = 0.04 and p = 0.8). CAT -262 T carriers were less frequent in highly exposed miners (OR = 0.39 [0.20-0.78], p = 0.007). In CAT -262 T carriers only, catalase activity decreased with high dust exposure (p = 0.01). Haplotype analyses (combined CAT SNPs) confirm these results. Results show that CAT -262 and LTA NcoI SNPs, and interaction with coal dust exposure, influenced catalase activity.