Background: Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (PLS) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by palmoplantar hyperkeratosis and severe early onset of destructive periodontitis leading to premature loss of both primary and permanent dentitions. The etiopathogenesis of the condition suggests that there is a genetic basis for susceptibility to specific virulent pathogens. Variation in the clinical presentation of PLS has recently been observed.
Objective: The objective was to present the first report, which describes the concurrence of PLS and albinism. The etiology, pathology, and management of the condition were reviewed and genetic analysis was performed. SUBJECTS AND CLINICAL PRESENTATION: The probands are Jordanian brothers aged 13 and 20 years on their initial presentation. The parents were second cousins and not affected. The patients exhibited the typical clinical features of PLS with type 1 oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1). They also had increased susceptibility to infection manifested in recurrent tonsillitis, respiratory tract infection, pyoderma, onychogryphosis, and other pathosis. Skin biopsy demonstrated hyperkeratosis, focal parakeratosis, hypergranulosis, and acanthosis. Ectopic calcification of the dura was noticed in one of the probands. Hematological parameters tested were within the normal limits. The probands were tested for mutations in the causative genes of PLS and OCA1, cathepsin C (CTSC), and tyrosinase, respectively. Independent mutations (c.318-1G>A and c.817G>C/p.W272C) were identified in CTSC and tyrosinase, respectively. The probands were homozygous and their sister who had only PLS was homozygous for the same (CTSC) mutation but heterozygous for tyrosinase gene.
Conclusion: We hope that this report of coinheritance PLS and albinism will initiate further investigations to disclose other possible variations that may enhance our knowledge on gene mutations of this intriguing syndrome.