Strategies to reduce fracture risk must be based on a sound understanding of the mechanisms that underline the increased incidence of fractures with age and with certain diseases. There is evidence that in addition to bone minerals density, other factors influence bone strength. The chapter reviews the biomechanical aspects of age-related fractures, including the interacting roles of traumatic loading and bone strength, and the factors that determine a bones resistances to fracture. Also discussed are the mechanisms by which anti-catabolic and anabolic therapies for osteoporosis may affect bone strength. Finally, several current and future methodologies for improving assessment of bone strength in patients are evaluated.