Metabolic syndrome (MS) and obesity participate in the pathogenesis of kidney disease. We explored the impact of MS and post-transplant weight gain on graft survival. Two hundred ninety-two renal transplant recipients (RTRs) were included in the study. Various parameters (e.g. anthropometric, biological) were measured at the time of transplantation as well as 1 year post-transplant. The proportion of patients with overweight or obesity significantly increased during the first year post-transplant (p = 0.04). Mean weight gain was 2.7 +/- 5.8 kg. Thirty patients (10.3%) lost their graft during follow-up. In multivariate analysis, patients with an increase in body mass index (BMI) of more than 5% at 1 year post-transplant had an increased risk of graft loss with (HR: 2.82 [95% CI: 1.11-7.44], p = 0.015) or without death censoring (HR: 2.31 [95% CI: 1.06-5.04], p = 0.035). Low creatinine clearance (HR: 4.72 [95% CI: 1.63-13.69], p = 0.004), high urinary protein excretion (HR: 3.21 [95% CI: 1.27-8.18], p = 0.014) and delayed graft function (DGF) (HR: 2.621 [95% CI: 1.07-6.39], p = 0.036) were also independent risk factors for graft loss. MS did not independently predict graft loss, partly due to significant interactions with low-grade inflammation. We conclude that post-transplant weight gain significantly reduces graft survival.