Surfactant protein D (SP-D) is a collagenous glycoprotein, a collectin, which functions as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) recognition receptor in the innate immune response. Although originally identified in the lung as a component of surfactant, SP-D also occurs in the gastric mucosa at the luminal surface and within gastric pits of mucus-secreting cells. Infection with the gastroduodenal pathogen Helicobacter pylori up-regulates expression of SP-D in human patients with gastritis, and its influence on colonization has been demonstrated in a Helicobacter SP-D-deficient (SP-D(-/-)) mouse model. SP-D binds and agglutinates H. pylori cells in a lectin-specific manner, and has been shown to bind H. pylori lipopolysaccharide. Furthermore, evidence indicates that H. pylori varies LPS O-chain structure to evade SP-D binding which is speculated aids persistence of this chronic infection.