The CLN9 protein, a regulator of dihydroceramide synthase

J Biol Chem. 2006 Feb 3;281(5):2784-94. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M509483200. Epub 2005 Nov 22.


A new variant of a group of pediatric neurodegenerative diseases known as neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL) or Batten disease has been identified. It is termed CLN9-deficient. CLN9-deficient fibroblasts have a distinctive phenotype of rapid growth and increased apoptosis and diminished levels of ceramide, dihydroceramide, and sphingomyelin. Transfection with CLN8 but not other NCL genes corrected growth and apoptosis in CLN9-deficient cells, although the entire CLN8 sequence was normal. CLN8 is one of the TRAM-Lag1-CLN8 proteins containing a Lag1 motif. The latter imparts (dihydro)ceramide synthase activity to yeast cells. Transfection with the yeast gene Lag1 Sc and the human homolog LASS1 increased ceramide levels and partially corrected growth and apoptosis in CLN9-deficient cells. LASS2,-4,,-5, and -6 also corrected growth and apoptosis. Dihydroceramide levels and dihydroceramide synthase activity were markedly diminished in CLN9-deficient cells. Sequencing of LASS1, LASS2, LASS4, LASS5, and LASS6 genes was normal, and expression levels were increased or normal in CLN9-deficient cells by reverse transcription-PCR. N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR), a dihydroceramide synthase activator, corrected growth and apoptosis and increased dihydroceramide synthase activity. Ceramide levels dropped further, and there was no increase in de novo ceramide synthesis, probably due to the effects of 4-HPR as activator of dihydroceramide synthase and inhibitor of dihydroceramide desaturase. Fumonisin B1, a dihydroceramide synthase inhibitor, exaggerated the CLN9-deficient phenotype of accelerated growth, decreased ceramide and increased apoptosis. This was neutralized by 4-HPR. We conclude that the CLN9 protein may be a regulator of dihydroceramide synthase and that 4-HPR could be developed as a treatment for CLN9-deficient patients.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Apoptosis
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Ceramides / analysis
  • Fenretinide / pharmacology
  • Fibroblasts / pathology
  • Fumonisins / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Membrane Proteins / genetics
  • Membrane Proteins / physiology*
  • Neuronal Ceroid-Lipofuscinoses / enzymology
  • Neuronal Ceroid-Lipofuscinoses / metabolism*
  • Neuronal Ceroid-Lipofuscinoses / pathology
  • Oxidoreductases / metabolism*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins / genetics
  • Sphingosine N-Acyltransferase


  • CLN8 protein, human
  • CLN9 protein, human
  • Ceramides
  • Fumonisins
  • LAG1 protein, S cerevisiae
  • Membrane Proteins
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
  • dihydroceramide
  • Fenretinide
  • fumonisin B1
  • Oxidoreductases
  • dihydroceramide synthase
  • CERS1 protein, human
  • Sphingosine N-Acyltransferase