Risk factors for age-related macular degeneration: findings from the Andhra Pradesh eye disease study in South India

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2005 Dec;46(12):4442-9. doi: 10.1167/iovs.05-0853.


Purpose: To assess prevalence, potential risk factors, and population attributable risk percentage (PAR%) for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.

Methods: A population-based study, using a stratified, random, cluster, systematic sampling strategy, was conducted in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India from 1996 to 2000. Participants from 94 clusters in one urban and three rural areas representative of the population of Andhra Pradesh underwent a detailed interview and a detailed dilated ocular evaluation by trained professionals. In this report, the authors present the prevalence estimates of AMD and examine the association of AMD with potential risk factors in persons aged 40 to 102 years (n = 3723). AMD was defined according to the international classification and grading system. Standard bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the potential risk factors for AMD. PAR% was calculated by Levin's formula.

Results: AMD was present in 71 subjects--an age-gender-area-adjusted prevalence of 1.82% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39%-2.25%). Risk factors that were significant in bivariate analyses were considered for multivariate logistic regression analysis. Multivariate analysis showed that the adjusted prevalence of AMD was significantly higher in those 60 years of age or older (odds ratio [OR], 3.55; 95% CI, 1.61-7.82) and history of prior cigar smoking (OR, 3.29; 95%CI, 1.42-7.57). Presence of cortical cataract and prior cataract surgery were significantly associated with increased prevalence of AMD (adjusted OR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.57-5.26 and 3.79; 95% CI, 2.1-6.78), respectively. The prevalence of AMD was significantly lower in light alcohol drinkers (adjusted OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.19-0.76) compared with nondrinkers. The PAR% for hypertension and heavy cigar smoking was 10% and 14%, respectively, in this population.

Conclusions: The prevalence of AMD in this south Indian population is similar to those reported in other developed countries. Abstinence from smoking may reduce the risk of AMD in this population.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Age Distribution
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Female
  • Humans
  • India / epidemiology
  • Macular Degeneration / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Risk Factors
  • Rural Population / statistics & numerical data
  • Sex Distribution
  • Urban Population / statistics & numerical data