Extracranial-intracranial bypass in the treatment of occlusive cerebrovascular disease and intracranial aneurysms in the United States between 1992 and 2001: a population-based study

J Neurosurg. 2005 Nov;103(5):794-804. doi: 10.3171/jns.2005.103.5.0794.


Object: The authors assessed the results of extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass surgery in the treatment of occlusive cerebrovascular disease and intracranial aneurysms in the US between 1992 and 2001 by using population-based methods.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study based on data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville, MD). Five hundred fifty-eight operations were performed at 158 hospitals by 115 identified surgeons. The indications for surgery were cerebral ischemia in 74% of the operations (2.4% mortality rate), unruptured aneurysms in 19% of the operations (7.7% mortality rate), and ruptured aneurysms in 7% of the operations (21% mortality rate). Overall, 4.6% of the patients died and 4.7% of the patients were discharged to long-term facilities, 16.4% to short-term facilities, and 74.2% to their homes. The annual number of admissions in the US increased from 190 per year (1992-1996) to 360 per year (1997-2001), whereas the mortality rates increased from 2.8% (1992-1996) to 5.7% (1997-2001). The median annual number of procedures was three per hospital (range one-27 operations) or two per surgeon (range one-21 operations). For 29% of patients, their bypass procedure was the only one recorded at their particular hospital during that year; for these institutions the mean annual caseload was 0.4 admissions per year. For 42% of patients, their particular surgeon performed no other bypass procedure during that year. Older patient age (p < 0.001) and African-American race (p = 0.005) were risk factors for adverse outcome. In a multivariate analysis in which adjustments were made for age, sex, race, diagnosis, admission type, geographic region, medical comorbidity, and year of surgery, high-volume hospitals less frequently had an adverse discharge disposition (odds ratio 0.54, p = 0.03).

Conclusions: Most EC-IC bypasses performed in the US during the last decade were performed for occlusive cerebrovascular disease. Community mortality rates for aneurysm treatment including bypass procedures currently exceed published values from specialized centers and, during the period under study, the mortality rates increased with time for all diagnostic subgroups. This technically demanding procedure has become a very low-volume operation at most US centers.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Arterial Occlusive Diseases / mortality
  • Arterial Occlusive Diseases / surgery
  • Brain Ischemia / mortality*
  • Brain Ischemia / surgery*
  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Databases, Factual
  • Female
  • Hospital Mortality
  • Humans
  • Intracranial Aneurysm / mortality*
  • Intracranial Aneurysm / surgery*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neurosurgery / statistics & numerical data
  • Neurosurgical Procedures / mortality*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States / epidemiology
  • Vascular Surgical Procedures / mortality