Background: Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory condition affecting the gastrointestinal tract. Polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids given orally may reduce the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and hereby downregulate the inflammatory process.
Aim: To assess the effects of enteral fatty acids, in the form of Impact Powder (Novartis, Switzerland), as adjuvant therapy to corticosteroid treatment on the proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine profiles in patients with active Crohn's disease.
Methods: The proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines were measured in plasma from 31 patients with active Crohn's disease. Patients were randomized for oral intake of omega-3 fatty acid (3-Impact Powder) or omega-6 fatty acids (6-Impact Powder). Clinical and biochemical markers of inflammation were studied at baseline and after 5 and 9 weeks.
Results: Within the 3-Impact Powder group, no significant changes in concentrations of interleukin-6, interferon-gamma, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-2, interleukin-5 and interleukin-10, whereas a significant differences in concentration of interleukin-1beta and interleukin-4 were observed during therapy. Within the 6-Impact Powder group a significant changes in concentrations of interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, interferon-gamma, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, interleukin-2, interleukin-4, interleukin-5 and interleukin-10 were observed.
Conclusions: The 3-Impact Powder showed immunomodulatory properties and might inhibit an increase of proinflammatory cytokines in contrast to the 6-Impact Powder.