Evidence of premature atherosclerosis late after Kawasaki disease (KD) is accumulating. Given the potential roles of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), chemokine receptor CCR-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in atherogenesis, we sought to determine whether serum obtained from children late after KD would induce expression of these genes in macrophages in vitro. A total of 79 subjects were studied, which comprised 57 KD patients, 33 of whom had coronary aneurysms, and 22 age-matched controls. Expression of MCP-1, CCR2, and iNOS mRNA in THP-1 macrophages in the presence of patient and control serum was quantified as a ratio to beta-actin mRNA and expressed as a percentage of control. MCP-1 expression was significantly increased in the presence of serum from patients with coronary aneurysms. Expression of CCR2 and iNOS was significantly increased when THP-1 macrophages were incubated with serum from patients with and without coronary aneurysms. The magnitude of induction of MCP-1, CCR2, and iNOS or in combinations correlated positively with serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels and negatively with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level. In conclusion, the serum of patients with a history of KD induces expression of MCP-1, CCR2, and iNOS in THP-1 macrophages in vitro. Induction of these genes in vivo may be related to chronic inflammation and may have important implications for premature atherosclerosis.