Identification of NPR1-dependent and independent genes early induced by salicylic acid treatment in Arabidopsis

Plant Mol Biol. 2005 Dec;59(6):927-44. doi: 10.1007/s11103-005-2227-x.


Salicylic acid (SA) plays a crucial role in stress resistance in plants by modifying the expression of a battery of genes. In this paper, we report the identification of a group of early SA-regulated genes of Arabidopsis (activated between 0.5-2.5 h), using the cDNA-amplified fragment length polymorphism technique (cDNA-AFLP). Using 128 different primer combinations, we identified several genes based on their differential expression during SA treatment. Among these, we identified 12 genes up-regulated by SA whose patterns of induction were confirmed by Northern analysis. The identified genes can be grouped into two functional groups: Group 1: genes involved in cell protection (i.e. glycosyltransferases, glutathion S-transferases), and Group 2: genes involved in signal transduction (protein kinases and transcription factors). We also evaluated NPR1 requirement for the induction of the 12 up-regulated genes, and found that only those belonging to Group 2 require this co-activator for their expression. In silico analysis of the promoter sequences of the up-regulated genes, allowed us to identify putative cis-elements over-represented in these genes. Interestingly, as-1-like elements, previously characterized as SA-responsive elements, were specifically over-represented in Group 1 genes. The identification of early SA-regulated genes is an important step towards understanding the complex role of this hormone in plant stress resistance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Motifs
  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis / metabolism
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis Proteins / metabolism*
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Cyclopentanes / metabolism
  • DNA Primers / chemistry
  • DNA, Complementary / metabolism
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  • Glutathione Transferase / metabolism
  • Glycosyltransferases / metabolism
  • Kinetics
  • Oligonucleotides / chemistry
  • Oxylipins
  • Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic
  • RNA / metabolism
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Salicylic Acid / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction
  • Temperature
  • Time Factors
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism
  • Up-Regulation


  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Cyclopentanes
  • DNA Primers
  • DNA, Complementary
  • NPR1 protein, Arabidopsis
  • Oligonucleotides
  • Oxylipins
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • Transcription Factors
  • RNA
  • jasmonic acid
  • Glycosyltransferases
  • Glutathione Transferase
  • Salicylic Acid