Prevention of bone loss by phloridzin, an apple polyphenol, in ovariectomized rats under inflammation conditions

Calcif Tissue Int. 2005 Nov;77(5):311-8. doi: 10.1007/s00223-005-0060-5. Epub 2005 Nov 16.

Abstract

Aging and sex hormones related changes lead to inflammatory and oxidant conditions, which are involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. Recent studies have suggested that polyphenols may exert a protective effect in such conditions. We assessed the effect of phloridzin (Phlo), a flavonoid exclusively found in apple, on bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) or sham-operated (SH) rats with and without inflammation. Six-month-old Wistar rats were allocated to two equal groups that received either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 0.25% Phlo for 80 days. Three weeks before necropsy, inflammation was induced by subcutaneous injection of talc in 10 animals of each group. At necropsy, ovariectomy decreased both total (T-BMD) and metaphyseal (M-BMD) femoral bone mineral density (P < 0.01). Inflammation conditions, checked by an increase in the spleen weight and alpha1-acid glycoprotein concentration in OVX rats, exacerbated the decrease in T-BMD (g/cm2) (as well as M-BMD) observed in castrated animals (P < 0.05). Daily Phlo intake prevented ovariectomy-induced bone loss in conditions of inflammation as shown by T-BMD and M-BMD (P < 0.05). At the diaphyseal site, BMD was improved by Phlo in OVX rats with or without inflammation (P < 0.05). These results could be explained by changes in bone remodeling as the increased urinary deoxypyridinoline excretion in OVX and OVXinf animals was prevented by the polyphenol-rich diet (P < 0.001), while plasma osteocalcin concentration was similar in all experimental groups. In conclusion, Phlo consumption may provide protection against ovariectomy-induced osteopenia under inflammation conditions by improving inflammation markers and bone resorption.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Body Weight / drug effects
  • Bone Density / drug effects
  • Bone Density / physiology
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / complications
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / physiopathology
  • Bone Diseases, Metabolic / prevention & control*
  • Bone Resorption / drug therapy*
  • Bone Resorption / physiopathology
  • Bone Resorption / prevention & control*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • Femur / drug effects
  • Femur / metabolism
  • Femur / physiopathology
  • Inflammation / complications
  • Inflammation / drug therapy*
  • Inflammation / physiopathology
  • Malus / chemistry*
  • Organ Size / drug effects
  • Osteocalcin / blood
  • Ovariectomy
  • Phlorhizin / therapeutic use*
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Stress, Mechanical
  • Weight-Bearing

Substances

  • Plant Extracts
  • Osteocalcin
  • Phlorhizin