Anti-inflammatory activity of verminoside from Kigelia africana and evaluation of cutaneous irritation in cell cultures and reconstituted human epidermis

J Nat Prod. 2005 Nov;68(11):1610-4. doi: 10.1021/np058046z.


Kigelia africana is a plant used in Africa for anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, and anti-skin-aging effects. Various papers have reported on the composition and biological activities of its CH2Cl2 extracts and dermal formulations. Chemical analysis of a polar extract of fruit from K. africana indicated the presence of verminoside (1), an iridoid, as a major constituent, and of a series of polyphenols such as verbascoside (2). In vitro assays showed that 1 had significant anti-inflammatory effects, inhibiting both iNOS expression and NO release in the LPS-induced J774.A1 macrophage cell line. Cytotoxicity and cutaneous irritation of the extract and of compounds 1 and 2 were investigated. The crude extract and 1 did not affect cell viability in vitro either in cells grown in monolayers (ML) or in the reconstituted human epidermis (RHE, 3D) model; neither caused release of pro-inflammatory mediators or histomorphological modification of RHE.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / chemistry
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal / pharmacology*
  • Bignoniaceae / chemistry*
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Epidermis / drug effects*
  • Fruit / chemistry
  • Glucosides / chemistry
  • Glucosides / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Iridoids / chemistry
  • Iridoids / isolation & purification
  • Iridoids / pharmacology*
  • Macrophages / drug effects
  • Mali
  • Mice
  • Models, Biological
  • Molecular Structure
  • Monocytes / drug effects
  • Nitric Oxide / biosynthesis
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / biosynthesis
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II / drug effects
  • Phenols / chemistry
  • Phenols / pharmacology
  • Plants, Medicinal / chemistry*


  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • Glucosides
  • Iridoids
  • Phenols
  • verminoside
  • Nitric Oxide
  • acteoside
  • Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II