The present study evaluated the effects of acute caffeine administration on paced mating behavior and partner preference in ovariectomized rats primed with estrogen and progesterone. In Experiment 1, female rats were tested for paced mating behavior following acute administration of caffeine (15 mg/kg). Caffeine shortened the latency to return to a male following an ejaculation. Although this dose of caffeine did not alter the likelihood of leaving a male after receiving sexual stimulation, locomotor activity did increase significantly. Experiment 2 evaluated the dose response characteristics of caffeine (7.5, 15, 30 mg/kg) administration on paced mating behavior. Replicating Experiment 1, caffeine at the lower doses shortened the latency to return to a male following an ejaculation. Finally, to determine whether the effects of caffeine (15 mg/kg) on contact-return latency reflect a change in sexual motivation or merely an inability to inhibit locomotion, rats were tested for partner preference (intact male vs. estrous female) following caffeine administration (Experiment 3). Although caffeine did not disrupt preference for a sexual partner, caffeine selectively increased visits to the male when physical contact was possible. Collectively, these results suggest that the effects of caffeine on female mating behavior may reflect an increase in both sexual motivation and locomotor activity.