Triggering TLR signaling in vaccination

Trends Immunol. 2006 Jan;27(1):49-55. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2005 Nov 23.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pattern-recognition receptors that are an important link between innate and adaptive immunity. Many established, as well as experimental, vaccines incorporate ligands for TLRs, not only to protect against infectious diseases but also in therapeutic immunization against noninfectious diseases, such as cancer. We review the underlying mechanisms by which engagement of TLR signaling pathways might trigger an adaptive immune response after immunization. Although the engagement of TLR signaling pathways is a promising mechanism for boosting vaccine responses, questions of efficacy, feasibility and safety remain the subject of active investigation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Movement
  • Dendritic Cells / cytology
  • Dendritic Cells / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immune Tolerance / immunology
  • Signal Transduction / immunology*
  • Toll-Like Receptors / immunology*
  • Vaccination*


  • Toll-Like Receptors