Acute rejection is associated with antibodies to non-Gal antigens in baboons using Gal-knockout pig kidneys

Nat Med. 2005 Dec;11(12):1295-8. doi: 10.1038/nm1330. Epub 2005 Nov 27.


We transplanted kidneys from alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GalT-KO) pigs into six baboons using two different immunosuppressive regimens, but most of the baboons died from severe acute humoral xenograft rejection. Circulating induced antibodies to non-Gal antigens were markedly elevated at rejection, which mediated strong complement-dependent cytotoxicity against GalT-KO porcine target cells. These data suggest that antibodies to non-Gal antigens will present an additional barrier to transplantation of organs from GalT-KO pigs to humans.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Genetically Modified*
  • Antibodies / blood
  • Galactosyltransferases / genetics
  • Galactosyltransferases / immunology
  • Graft Rejection / immunology*
  • Immune Tolerance / immunology*
  • Immunosuppression / methods
  • Kidney Transplantation / immunology*
  • Papio
  • Sus scrofa / genetics
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Transplantation, Heterologous / immunology
  • Transplantation, Heterologous / methods*
  • Transplantation, Heterologous / mortality*


  • Antibodies
  • Galactosyltransferases