Objective: To identify prognostic factors for female dogs that have undergone surgical removal of malignant mammary tumors.
Design: Retrospective case series.
Animals: 79 female dogs with malignant mammary tumors.
Procedure: Information obtained from the medical records included breed, age, sex, tumor size (maximum diameter), number and location of affected mammary glands, time between tumor identification and surgical removal, radiographic evidence of distant metastasis, surgical procedure, ovariohysterectomy (OHE) status, histologic classification of the tumor, and survival time.
Results: Results of univariate analyses indicated that clinical stage, tumor size, OHE status, metastasis to adjacent lymph nodes or distant sites, and histologic classification of the tumor were significantly associated with survival 2 years after surgery. Tumors > or = 5 cm in diameter and tumors that had been identified > 6 months before surgery were more likely to metastasize to adjacent lymph nodes. Ovariohysterectomy was more beneficial in dogs with complex carcinomas than in dogs with simple carcinomas. In multivariate analyses, clinical stage, tumor size, and OHE status were significantly associated with survival 2 years after surgery.
Conclusions and clinical relevance: Results suggest that tumor stage, tumor size, and OHE status were significant prognostic factors associated with survival 2 years after surgery in dogs with malignant mammary tumors. Further, either dogs with tumors > or = 5 cm in diameter or dogs with tumors present for > 6 months prior to surgery had a higher risk of having lymph node metastases.