Cystic fibrosis (CF) related diabetes mellitus (DM) occurs in 15% of adult pancreatic insufficient CF patients. Lung transplantation is a treatment option for end-stage CF. We hypothesized that the prevalence of DM increases after lung transplantation. The study population included adult patients undergoing lung transplantation from March 1988 to March 2002 for end-stage CF at the University of Toronto. Demographic data, exocrine pancreatic function, presence of DM before and after transplant, as well as timing of its development after transplant were collected. Eighty-six patients met the study criteria; 77 of 86 (89.5%) of patients were pancreatic insufficient and were further analyzed. Median follow-up post-transplant was 3.3 yr (interquartile range: 1.2-7.2). Their mean age was 29.7 +/- 8.1 yr and 46 of 77 (59.7%) were male. The prevalence of DM increased from 22 of 77 (28.6%) before transplant to 38 of 77 (49.4%) after transplant (p = 0.008). The median time of DM development after transplant was 80 d (range: 13-4352). Sixteen of 55 (29.1%) of pancreatic insufficient patients who were non-diabetic prior to transplant, developed DM after transplant. DM is common in CF patients undergoing lung transplantation and the prevalence increases after transplant.