Risperidone for psychosis of Alzheimer's disease and mixed dementia: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2005 Dec;20(12):1153-7. doi: 10.1002/gps.1409.

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of low-dose risperidone in treating psychosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mixed dementia (MD) in a subset of nursing-home residents who had dementia and aggression and who were participating in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of risperidone for aggression.

Method: This post-hoc analysis included only patients diagnosed with AD or MD with psychosis, defined by a score of >or= 2 on any item of the Behavioral Pathology of Alzheimer's Disease (BEHAVE-AD) psychosis subscale at both screening and baseline. Co-primary efficacy endpoints were changes in scores on BEHAVE-AD psychosis subscale and Clinical Global Impression of Change (CGI-C).

Results: Overall, 93 patients (46 risperidone and 47 placebo) fulfilled the psychosis of AD criteria. Mean change at endpoint in BEHAVE-AD psychosis subscale with risperidone was superior to placebo (-5.2 vs -3.3; p = 0.039). Distribution of CGI-C at endpoint also favoured risperidone (p < 0.001). The superior improvement with risperidone compared with placebo occurred as early as the first two weeks and persisted to the end of the treatment period. At endpoint, 59% of risperidone-treated patients were responders (i.e. were 'very much' or 'much' improved) compared with 26% of patients receiving placebo. The mean risperidone dose was 1.03 +/- 0.61 mg/day. Twelve weeks of treatment were completed by 37 patients treated with risperidone (80%) and 35 with placebo (74%). A total of 46 (98%) placebo- and 44 (96%) risperidone-treated patients experienced at least one adverse event, with only somnolence occurring more frequently in the risperidone group.

Conclusion: Risperidone effectively reduces psychosis and improves global functioning in elderly patients with moderate-to-severe psychosis of AD and MD.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Alzheimer Disease / drug therapy
  • Alzheimer Disease / psychology*
  • Antipsychotic Agents / adverse effects
  • Antipsychotic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Dementia, Vascular / drug therapy
  • Dementia, Vascular / psychology*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Female
  • Homes for the Aged
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nursing Homes
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales
  • Psychotic Disorders / drug therapy*
  • Psychotic Disorders / etiology
  • Risperidone / adverse effects
  • Risperidone / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Antipsychotic Agents
  • Risperidone