N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists such as phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine can evoke psychotic symptoms in normal individuals and schizophrenic patients. Here, we have examined the effects of PCP (5 mg/kg) and ketamine (25 mg/kg) on the efflux of serotonin (5-HT) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and their possible blockade by the antipsychotics, clozapine, olanzapine and haloperidol, as well as ritanserin (5-HT2A/2C receptor antagonist) and prazosin (alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist). The systemic administration, but not the local perfusion, of the two NMDA receptor antagonists markedly increased the efflux of 5-HT in the mPFC. The atypical antipsychotics clozapine (1 mg/kg) and olanzapine (1 mg/kg), and prazosin (0.3 mg/kg), but not the classical antipsychotic haloperidol (1 mg/kg), reversed the PCP- and ketamine-induced increase in 5-HT efflux. Ritanserin (5 mg/kg) was able to reverse only the effect of PCP. These findings indicate that an increased serotonergic transmission in the mPFC is a functional consequence of NMDA receptor hypofunction and this effect is blocked by atypical antipsychotic drugs.