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Review
. 2005 Nov;11(11):1664-72.
doi: 10.3201/eid1111.050608.

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1, Thailand, 2004

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Free PMC article
Review

Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza H5N1, Thailand, 2004

Thanawat Tiensin et al. Emerg Infect Dis. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

In January 2004, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus of the H5N1 subtype was first confirmed in poultry and humans in Thailand. Control measures, e.g., culling poultry flocks, restricting poultry movement, and improving hygiene, were implemented. Poultry populations in 1,417 villages in 60 of 76 provinces were affected in 2004. A total of 83% of infected flocks confirmed by laboratories were backyard chickens (56%) or ducks (27%). Outbreaks were concentrated in the Central, the southern part of the Northern, and Eastern Regions of Thailand, which are wetlands, water reservoirs, and dense poultry areas. More than 62 million birds were either killed by HPAI viruses or culled. H5N1 virus from poultry caused 17 human cases and 12 deaths in Thailand; a number of domestic cats, captive tigers, and leopards also died of the H5N1 virus. In 2005, the epidemic is ongoing in Thailand.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Distribution of poultry population in Thailand in 2003.
Figure 2
Figure 2
Epidemic curve of the confirmed highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks in poultry in Thailand by date of notification. A) January–May 2004. B) July–December 2004.
Figure 3
Figure 3
Distribution of reported highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 outbreaks in villages in Thailand, January–May 2004 (188 villages of 193 flocks) and July–December 2004 (1,243 villages of 1,492 flocks).
Figure 4
Figure 4
Infected flocks by day of detection and type of poultry, January–May 2004 (panels with "-1" suffix) and July–December 2004 (panels with "-2" suffix). A) Backyard chickens. B) Ducks. C) Broilers. D) Layers.
Figure 5
Figure 5
Percentage of main poultry types in infected flocks by region during the 2004 HPAI H5N1 epidemic in Thailand. A) January–May 2004. B) July–December 2004.

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