HIF-1, a hypoxia inducible transcription factor, plays a pivotal role in the cellular response to hypoxia by activating genes involved in glucose metabolism, vascular remodeling, and erythropoiesis. We identified Mxi1, a c-Myc antagonist, as a novel target gene induced in hypoxia. Mxi1 was not induced in cells deficient in ARNT (HIF-1beta), suggesting that Mxi1 is a transcriptional target of the HIF-1 complex. Notably, c-Myc protein levels decreased during hypoxia but were stabilized by a proteasome inhibitor. Analysis of downstream transcriptional targets of c-Myc during hypoxia revealed that genes regulated by c-Myc, such as ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), were downregulated during hypoxia. In contrast, genes that are regulated by c-Myc and HIF-1, such as LDH-A, were upregulated. Mxi1 protects against c-Myc-dependent sensitization to hypoxia-induced apoptosis. The results suggest a coordinated mechanism for opposing c-Myc signaling during hypoxia that is mediated by a reduction in c-Myc levels, the induction of Mxi1, and a dominant effect of HIF-1 transcriptional activity.