Culture of percutaneous bone biopsy specimens for diagnosis of diabetic foot osteomyelitis: concordance with ulcer swab cultures

Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Jan 1;42(1):57-62. doi: 10.1086/498112. Epub 2005 Nov 21.


Background: We assessed the diagnostic value of swab cultures by comparing them with corresponding cultures of percutaneous bone biopsy specimens for patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

Methods: The medical charts of patients with foot osteomyelitis who underwent a surgical percutaneous bone biopsy between January 1996 and June 2004 in a single diabetic foot clinic were reviewed. Seventy-six patients with 81 episodes of foot osteomyelitis who had positive results of culture of bone biopsy specimens and who had received no antibiotic therapy for at least 4 weeks before biopsy constituted the study population.

Results: Pathogens isolated from bone samples were predominantly staphylococci (52%) and gram-negative bacilli (18.4%). The distributions of microorganisms in bone and swab cultures were similar, except for coagulase-negative staphylococci, which were more prevalent in bone samples (P < .001). The results for cultures of concomitant foot ulcer swabs were available for 69 of 76 patients. The results of bone and swab cultures were identical for 12 (17.4%) of 69 patients, and bone bacteria were isolated from the corresponding swab culture in 21 (30.4%) of 69 patients. The concordance between the results of cultures of swab and of bone biopsy specimens was 42.8% for Staphylococcus aureus, 28.5% for gram-negative bacilli, and 25.8% for streptococci. The overall concordance for all isolates was 22.5%. No adverse events--such as worsening peripheral vascular disease, fracture, or biopsy-induced bone infection--were observed, but 1 patient experienced an episode of acute Charcot osteoarthropathy 4 weeks after bone biopsy was performed.

Conclusions: These results suggest that superficial swab cultures do not reliably identify bone bacteria. Percutaneous bone biopsy seems to be safe for patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study

MeSH terms

  • Bacteria / isolation & purification*
  • Biopsy
  • Diabetic Foot / complications*
  • Diabetic Foot / microbiology*
  • Diabetic Foot / pathology
  • Foot Bones / microbiology
  • Foot Bones / pathology
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteomyelitis / complications*
  • Osteomyelitis / microbiology*
  • Osteomyelitis / pathology
  • Retrospective Studies