Previous studies have shown that human serum containing anti-group A streptococcus carbohydrate (GAS CHO) antibodies were opsonic for different M protein-carrying serotypes. To investigate the role that anti-GAS CHO antibodies play in passive and active protection, mice were immunized subcutaneously or intranasally with GAS CHO conjugated to tetanus toxoid, and mortality and oral colonization were monitored after challenge with live GAS. Compared with control mice, immunized mice were significantly protected against systemic or nasal challenge with GAS. Furthermore, studies of serum samples and throat cultures from Mexican children revealed an inverse relationship between high serum titers of anti-GAS CHO antibodies and the presence of GAS in the throat. Anti-GAS CHO antibodies were also tested for cross-reactivity with human tissues and cytoskeletal proteins. No cross-reactivity was observed in either assay. The present study demonstrates that GAS CHO is both immunogenic and protective against GAS infections.