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. 2006;38(5-6):1004-14.
doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2005.10.015. Epub 2005 Nov 16.

Glucosamine-induced Phosphorylation of the Alpha-Subunit of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Is Mediated by the Protein Kinase R-like Endoplasmic-Reticulum Associated Kinase

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Glucosamine-induced Phosphorylation of the Alpha-Subunit of Eukaryotic Initiation Factor 2 Is Mediated by the Protein Kinase R-like Endoplasmic-Reticulum Associated Kinase

Christina Leah B Kline et al. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. .

Abstract

In diabetic animals, enhanced production of vascular endothelial growth factor is thought to be a major contributor to the development of diabetic retinopathy. In the present study, glucosamine-treated R28 retinal neuronal cells were used as an experimental model system to explore the possible involvement of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway in the diabetes-induced changes in mRNA translation. Glucosamine treatment enhanced vascular endothelial growth factor production subsequent to changes in phosphorylation of the alpha-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2, with no change in vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA content. Possible mechanisms through which glucosamine might act to increase eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation include enhanced O-linked glycosylation of protein kinase or phosphatase regulatory proteins and/or induction of oxidative stress. However, increasing global protein O-glycosylation through inhibition of O-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase did not mimic the effect of glucosamine on eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation. Likewise, attenuating glucosamine-induced oxidative stress with two different antioxidants did not reduce glucosamine-induced eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation. Glucosamine treatment was also found to promote eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation in wild-type mouse embryonic fibroblasts, but not in mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking the eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha kinase referred to as RNA-dependent protein kinase-like endoplasmic-reticulum associated kinase, implicating the kinase in the glucosamine-induced increase in eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha phosphorylation. Overall, the results are consistent with glucosamine causing activation of RNA-dependent protein kinase-like endoplasmic-reticulum associated kinase, which phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha and consequently upregulates translation of mRNAs encoding specific proteins, such as vascular endothelial growth factor.

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