Inflammatory markers and the metabolic syndrome: insights from therapeutic interventions

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2005 Dec 6;46(11):1978-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2005.06.082. Epub 2005 Nov 9.


Inflammation in the vasculature might be an important pathogenic link between cardiovascular diseases and the metabolic syndrome. Inflammation can be reduced by a variety of approaches including diet, exercise, cardiovascular drugs, and insulin sensitizers. Importantly, these different measures improve vascular function and reduce inflammation by distinct mechanisms. Therefore, combination therapy including lifestyle modifications and multiple drugs from separate classes might produce additive beneficial outcomes. We review plausible mechanisms for effects of combination therapy to reduce inflammation, improve endothelial dysfunction, and decrease insulin resistance in atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, and hypertension in the context of insulin-resistant states including diabetes, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adiponectin / physiology
  • Atherosclerosis / physiopathology
  • Biomarkers
  • C-Reactive Protein / physiology
  • CD40 Ligand / physiology
  • Chemokine CCL2 / blood
  • Coronary Disease / physiopathology*
  • Diabetic Angiopathies / physiopathology
  • Endothelium, Vascular / physiopathology*
  • Humans
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / pharmacology
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors / therapeutic use
  • Inflammation / physiopathology*
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 / blood
  • Interleukins / blood
  • Metabolic Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / analysis
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 / blood


  • Adiponectin
  • Biomarkers
  • Chemokine CCL2
  • Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors
  • Interleukins
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
  • Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1
  • CD40 Ligand
  • C-Reactive Protein