Polymerase chain reaction amplification of single-stranded DNA containing a base analog, 2-chloradenine

Anal Biochem. 1992 Mar;201(2):277-81. doi: 10.1016/0003-2697(92)90339-9.


By utilization of polymerase chain reaction techniques, single-stranded DNA of defined length and sequence containing a purine analog, 2-chloroadenine, in place of adenine was synthesized. This was accomplished by a combination of standard polymerase chain amplification reactions with Thermus aquaticus DNA polymerase in the presence of four normal deoxynucleoside triphosphates, M13 duplex DNA as template, and two primers to generate double-stranded DNA 118 bases in length. An asymmetric polymerase chain reaction, which produced an excess of single-stranded 98-base DNA, was then conducted with 2-chloro-2'-deoxy-adenosine 5'-triphosphate in place of dATP and with only one primer that annealed internal to the original two primers. Standard polymerase chain reaction techniques alone conducted in the presence of the analog as the fourth nucleotide did not produce duplex DNA that was modified within both strands. This asymmetric technique allows the incorporation of an altered nucleotide at specific sites into large quantities of single-stranded DNA without using chemical phosphoramidite synthesis procedures and circumvents the apparent inability of DNA polymerase to synthesize fully substituted double-stranded DNA during standard amplification reactions. The described method will permit the study of the effects of modified bases in template DNA on a variety of protein-DNA interactions and enzymes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adenine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Adenine / chemistry
  • Base Sequence
  • DNA
  • DNA, Single-Stranded / chemical synthesis*
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction / methods*


  • DNA, Single-Stranded
  • 2-chloroadenine
  • DNA
  • Adenine