Dose-dependent cell growth in response to concentration modulated patterns of FGF-2 printed on fibrin

Biomaterials. 2006 Apr;27(10):2213-21. doi: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2005.10.021. Epub 2005 Dec 1.


Immobilized patterns of unmodified fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), with varying surface concentrations, were inkjet printed onto physiologically relevant fibrin substrates. Printed patterns were characterized using iodinated FGF-2 to determine FGF-2 surface concentration and retention of FGF-2 binding in vitro. MG-63 cells were uniformly seeded onto patterned substrates. Cells were exposed to defined spatial FGF-2 surface concentrations of 1-22 pg/mm(2). Cell numbers were observed to increase in register with the printed FGF-2 patterns from an initial random uniform cell distribution across the patterned and non-patterned regions. Based on time-lapse image analysis, the primary organizational response of the cells was determined to be proliferation and not migration. Cell counts on and off the FGF-2 patterns over time demonstrated an increase in cell density up to a FGF-2 surface concentration of 14 pg/mm(2). Higher surface concentrations did not result in increased cell density. In addition, the cells on the FGF-2 patterns survived longer than the cells off patterns. Our inkjet printing approach permits the systematic study of cellular responses to defined spatial surface concentrations of immobilized growth factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Carbocyanines / metabolism
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Fibrin / metabolism*
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / pharmacology*
  • Fluorescent Dyes / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Printing / methods*
  • Surface Properties


  • Carbocyanines
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • cyanine dye 3
  • Fibroblast Growth Factor 2
  • Fibrin