Background: Elevated plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels were associated with higher incidence of type II diabetes. Elucidating the determinants of PAI-1 in various ethnicities may help to understand the susceptibility to developing diabetes. The aim of our study was to compare PAI-1 levels between Americans and the Japanese in the post-war generation and to elucidate the determinants of the PAI-1 levels.
Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study on a total of 198 men aged 40-49 in the US (Body mass index (BMI): 27.0+/-3.3 kg/m(2)) and Japan (BMI: 23.3+/-3.1 kg/m(2)). Examination included physique measurement (BMI and waist girth), blood analysis (lipid profiles, glucose, insulin, C-reactive protein, and PAI-1), and life-style assessment by self-administered questionnaires.
Results: PAI-1 levels were significantly lower in American than in Japanese men, even after adjustment for age, waist girth, cigarette smoking, habitual alcohol drinking, and other factors. In the Americans, waist girth, insulin, and cigarette smoking were significantly associated with PAI-1 levels, while waist girth and triglycerides were significantly associated with PAI-1 levels in the Japanese.
Conclusions: PAI-1 levels were significantly lower in American than in Japanese men and the determinants of PAI-1 levels differ for American and Japanese men aged 40-49.