MicroRNAs play important roles in cell differentiation by acting as translational inhibitors of specific target genes. Here we show that human granulocytic differentiation is controlled by a regulatory circuitry involving miR-223 and two transcriptional factors, NFI-A and C/EBPalpha. The two factors compete for binding to the miR-223 promoter: NFI-A maintains miR-223 at low levels, whereas its replacement by C/EBPalpha, following retinoic acid (RA)-induced differentiation, upregulates miR-223 expression. The competition by C/EBPalpha and the granulocytic differentiation are favored by a negative-feedback loop in which miR-223 represses NFI-A translation. In line with this, both RNAi against NFI-A and ectopic expression of miR-223 in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cells enhance differentiation, whereas miR-223 knockdown inhibits the differentiation response to RA. Altogether, our data indicate that miR-223 plays a crucial role during granulopoiesis and point to the NFI-A repression as an important molecular pathway mediating gene reprogramming in this cell lineage.