Objective: This study was performed to determine the potential efficacy of an automated device with a load-distributing band (AutoPulse, Revivant Corporation), in improving neurologically intact survival after cardiac arrest.
Design: Randomized, controlled trial.
Setting: University animal laboratory.
Subjects: Forty-four swine (18-23 kg).
Interventions: Eight minutes after induction of untreated ventricular fibrillation, pigs were randomized to AutoPulse-CPR (A-CPR, n = 22), conventional cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with 20% anterior-posterior chest displacement (C-CPR20, n = 10) or 30% chest displacement (C-CPR30, n = 12), followed by resuscitation protocol with ventilation, defibrillation and intravenous epinephrine (adrenaline).
Measurements and main results: Aortic and right atrium blood pressure was measured with micromanometers. Regional blood flows were measured with microspheres. Coronary perfusion pressure during A-CPR was significantly higher as compared to C-CPR without epinephrine (A-CPR versus C-CPR20 versus C-CPR30; 16 +/- 1 mmHg versus 7 +/- 2 mmHg versus 11 +/- 2 mmHg, p < 0.05). A-CPR improved both myocardial flow without epinephrine (A-CPR versus C-CPR20 versus C-CPR30; 23% versus 0% versus 4%; percent of baseline, p < 0.05) and cerebral blood flow (40% versus 4% versus 19%, percent of baseline, p < 0.05). Sixteen of 22 animals receiving A-CPR regained spontaneous circulation and survived; 14/22 had normal cerebral performance (CPC 1). Four of 12 animals receiving C-CPR30 regained spontaneous circulation and survived, but only one animal had normal neurological function (14/22 versus 1/12, p < 0.0001). No animal receiving C-CPR20 achieved spontaneous circulation. At necropsy, 67% of C-CPR30 had rib fracture and 33% showed lung injury, while A-CPR and C-CPR20 resulted in no detectable injuries.
Conclusions: Improved hemodynamics with AutoPulse performed CPR results in improved neurologically intact survival without subsequent thoracic or pulmonary injuries in this porcine model of prolonged cardiac arrest.