The study aimed to compare diastolic and systolic dysfunctions detected by echocardiography (ECHO) and multigated radionuclide angiography (MUGA) in patients with cancer in the first 3 months after anthracycline-comprising chemotherapy. Children with leukemia and solid tumors who had anthracycline-comprising chemotherapy were enrolled in the study. ECHO and MUGA were performed in all patients before the first chemotherapy course and in the first 3 month of completing anthracycline-comprising chemotherapy. Cumulative anthracycline doses per body surface were calculated. Left ventricular systolic and diastolic functions were measured by both techniques. Twenty-one patients with a median age of 6.9 +/- 3.6 years were enrolled in the study. Mean cumulative anthracycline doses were equivalent to 276 +/- 83 mg/m2 doxorubicin. After anthracycline chemotherapy, cardiac dysfunction was detected in 14 and 48% of the patients by ECHO and MUGA, respectively. All dysfunctions detected by ECHO were systolic, whereas 29% of the patients had diastolic and 38% of the patients had systolic dysfunction in MUGA study. Although the study group is small, MUGA seems more sensitive in detecting anthracycline-induced systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunctions compared to ECHO.