Tumor-associated trypsin inhibitor (TATI) is a marker of mucinous ovarian carcinoma, but it is also widely expressed in other malignant tumors and normal human tissues. Elevated serum concentrations of TATI are of prognostic value in ovarian, kidney, and bladder cancer. Tumor-associated trypsin is co-expressed with TATI in many malignancies and is thought to be involved in tumor invasion. TATI mRNA has been shown to be overexpressed in bladder cancer. We therefore studied whether trypsinogen expression also can be detected in bladder cancer and how this and TATI expression are associated with the clinicopathological characteristics of the tumors. We used RT-PCR, in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to detect trypsinogen- and TATI mRNA and protein in tissue samples from 28 bladder cancer patients and ten benign urothelia. TATI expression was detected in all benign tissues and non-invasive tumors. However, the expression was lower in the muscle-invasive tumors (pT2; n=5), whereas trypsinogen expression was seen in all but one non-invasive tumor. We conclude that trypsinogen is expressed in both malignant and benign bladder epithelium, whereas TATI expression decreases with increasing stage and grade of the tumor. This may suggest that a balanced expression of TATI and trypsinogen is required in normal tissue and that this balance is disrupted during tumor progression.