Case Study Part 2: Probabilistic modelling of long-term effects of pesticides on individual breeding success in birds and mammals

Ecotoxicology. 2005 Nov;14(8):895-923. doi: 10.1007/s10646-005-0035-3. Epub 2005 Nov 23.


Long term exposure of skylarks to a fictitious insecticide and of wood mice to a fictitious fungicide were modelled probabilistically in a Monte Carlo simulation. Within the same simulation the consequences of exposure to pesticides on reproductive success were modelled using the toxicity-exposure-linking rules developed by R.S. Bennet et al. (2005) and the interspecies extrapolation factors suggested by R. Luttik et al. (2005). We built models to reflect a range of scenarios and as a result were able to show how exposure to pesticide might alter the number of individuals engaged in any given phase of the breeding cycle at any given time and predict the numbers of new adults at the season's end.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Birds
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Environmental Pollutants / toxicity*
  • Mice
  • Models, Statistical*
  • Monte Carlo Method
  • Pesticides / toxicity*
  • Reproduction / drug effects*
  • Risk Assessment
  • Time
  • Triticum


  • Environmental Pollutants
  • Pesticides