Prehypertension seems to be related to increased cardiovascular risk in healthy subjects, while hypoadiponectinemia and hyperresistinemia may contribute to insulin resistance and accelerated atherogenesis. This study investigated whether plasma levels of adiponectin (known to increase insulin sensitivity) and resistin (a protein possibly involved in inflammatory activities) are affected in healthy individuals with prehypertension, and to compare the findings to those of healthy normotensives matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Twenty-six (14 men and 12 women) healthy individuals with prehypertension (mean age, 52+/-5 years; mean body mass index, 23+/-1.5 kg/m2) and 24 healthy normotensives (13 men and 11 women; mean age 53+/-6 years; body mass index 23.2+/-1.4 kg/m2) were studied. The adiponectin and resistin plasma levels were determined by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Plasma resistin levels were significantly higher, while adiponectin plasma levels were significantly lower, in prehypertensive subjects compared with normotensive subjects (10.62+/-3.17 ng/mL vs. 6.72+/-3.15 ng/mL and 6.26+/-2.18 mg/mL vs. 12.12+/-4.8 mg/mL; p < 0.01, respectively). The findings suggest that healthy individuals with prehypertension have significantly higher resistin plasma levels and significantly lower adiponectin plasma levels compared with healthy normotensives. These findings may represent another possible mechanism that may increase the cardiovascular risk in this special group of patients, needing further investigation.