Health outcomes for patients with major chronic illnesses depend on the appropriate use of proven pharmaceuticals and other therapeutic technologies, and effective self-management by patients. Effective chronic illness care then bases clinical decisions on the best, rigorous scientific evidence, or evidence-based medicine. Effective support for patient self-management includes efforts to increase patient participation in care and collaborative goal-setting and planning of treatment. These interventions appear somewhat consistent with recent conceptualizations of patient-centered care. The consistent delivery of proven therapies and information and support for self-management requires practice systems organized for that purpose. The Chronic Care Model is a compilation of those practice system changes shown to improve chronic care. This paper explores the concept of patient-centeredness and its relationship to the Chronic Care Model. We conclude that the Model is both evidence-based and patient-centered and that these can be properties of health systems, and not just of individual practitioners.