Pomegranate juice sugar fraction reduces macrophage oxidative state, whereas white grape juice sugar fraction increases it

Atherosclerosis. 2006 Sep;188(1):68-76. doi: 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2005.10.027. Epub 2005 Dec 5.

Abstract

The antiatherogenic properties of pomegranate juice (PJ) were attributed to its antioxidant potency and to its capacity to decrease macrophage oxidative stress, the hallmark of early atherogeneis. PJ polyphenols and sugar-containing polyphenolic anthocyanins were shown to confer PJ its antioxidant capacity. In the present study, we questioned whether PJ simple or complex sugars contribute to the antioxidative properties of PJ in comparison to white grape juice (WGJ) sugars. Whole PJ decreased cellular peroxide levels in J774A.1 macrophage cell-line by 23% more than PJ polyphenol fraction alone. Thus, we next determined the contribution of the PJ sugar fraction to the decrease in macrophage oxidative state. Increasing concentrations of the PJ sugar fraction resulted in a dose-dependent decrement in macrophage peroxide levels, up to 72%, compared to control cells. On the contrary, incubation of the cells with WGJ sugar fraction at the same concentrations resulted in a dose-dependent increment in peroxide levels by up to 37%. The two sugar fractions from PJ and from WGJ showed opposite effects (antioxidant for PJ and pro-oxidant for WGJ) also in mouse peritoneal macrophages (MPM) from control as well as from streptozotocin-induced diabetic Balb/C mice. PJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice for 10 days resulted in a small but significant decrement in their peritoneal macrophage total peroxide levels and an increment in cellular glutathione content, compared to MPM harvested from control diabetic mice administrated with water. In contrast, WGJ sugar consumption by diabetic mice resulted in a 22% increment in macrophage total peroxide levels and a 45% decrement in cellular glutathione content. Paraoxonase 2 activity in macrophages increases under oxidative stress conditions. Indeed, macrophage paraoxonase 2 activity was decreased after PJ sugars supplementation, but increased after WGJ sugars supplementation. We conclude that PJ sugar fraction, unlike WGJ sugar fraction, decreases macrophage oxidative state under normal and under diabetic conditions. These antioxidant/antiatherogenic effects could be due to the presence of unique complex sugars and/or phenolic sugars in PJ.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antioxidants / analysis
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase / analysis
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase / drug effects
  • Beverages*
  • Carbohydrates / analysis
  • Carbohydrates / pharmacology
  • Chemical Fractionation
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / chemically induced
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental / metabolism
  • Flavonoids / analysis
  • Flavonoids / pharmacology
  • Lythraceae / chemistry*
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / drug effects*
  • Macrophages, Peritoneal / enzymology
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Oxidative Stress / drug effects*
  • Phenols / analysis
  • Phenols / pharmacology
  • Polyphenols
  • Vitis / chemistry*

Substances

  • Antioxidants
  • Carbohydrates
  • Flavonoids
  • Phenols
  • Polyphenols
  • Aryldialkylphosphatase