A 77-year-old woman with primary esophageal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in clinical stage IEA (Ann Arbor Classification) developed pain and difficulty in swallowing. An upper gastrointestinal examination revealed a submucosal tumor from the upper to the middle portion of the esophagus. Histopathological examination at endoscopic biopsy with endoscopic partial incision showed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (diffuse type--large cell). Immunohistological examination of tumor cells disclosed LCA (+), CD3(DAKO) (+), MT1 (+), UCHL1 (+), MB1 (+), MxPanB (-) and EMA (-) reactivity and showed T cell lymphoma. The clinical stage was determined to be IEA after further work-up. Improvement of swallowing difficulty and esophageal findings on upper gastrointestinal series were noted after modified CHOP therapy and radiotherapy (total 50 Gy).