The prevalence of impaired kidney function has been estimated to be between 10% and 20% of adult populations in most countries worldwide. Reduced kidney function has been recognized as a risk factor for poor outcomes, and thus requires attention. Key aspects of management of CKD have been defined for referred populations, but not necessarily for those unreferred. In order to improve patient outcomes, there is a need to take a more holistic approach to the problem, by coordinating the efforts of policy makers, those involved in health care system redesign, clinicians, and researchers. In so doing, there should be an improvement in both identification and management of patients with impaired kidney function, whether cared for by primary care physicians, specialists, or nephrologists, and irrespective of the health care system.