There is increasing evidence that routine preoperative duplex scanning ultrasound cannot only increase the utilisation of native AVF for dialysis access but also allow proper selection of a target vessel with adequate luminal diameter to improve outcome. A minimum arterial diameter of 2mm is associated with successful fistula formation. A threshold for minimal venous diameter is difficult to establish. Most clinical studies use a value of 2.5mm for AVF and 4mm for prosthetic grafts. Traditional contrast venography is mandatory where there is suspicion of central vein stenosis. In predialysis patients where there is a risk of contrast nephropathy MR venography is emerging as a possible alternative.