Loss of cell ion homeostasis and cell viability in the brain: what sodium MRI can tell us

Curr Top Dev Biol. 2005;70:77-101. doi: 10.1016/S0070-2153(05)70004-1.


This chapter demonstrates the use of sodium magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a noninvasive, in vivo means to assess metabolic changes that ensue from loss of cell ion homeostasis due to cell death in the brain. The chapter is organized in two sections. In the first section, the constraints imposed on the imaging methods by the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) properties of the sodium ion are discussed and strategies for avoiding their potential limitations are addressed. The second section illustrates the use of sodium MRI for monitoring focal brain ischemia in permanent and temporary primate models of endovascular middle cerebral artery occlusion.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Brain / blood supply
  • Brain / metabolism*
  • Brain / pathology*
  • Cell Death
  • Cell Survival
  • Contrast Media
  • Haplorhini
  • Homeostasis*
  • Ions / chemistry
  • Ions / metabolism
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*
  • Models, Animal
  • Sodium / chemistry
  • Sodium / metabolism*


  • Contrast Media
  • Ions
  • Sodium