This work was designed to study the expression of the vasodilator peptide angiotensin-(1-7) [Ang-(1-7)] and its generating enzyme (ACE2) in the uteroplacental interface. Placentas were obtained from 11 early pregnancy failures (5 miscarriages and 6 ectopic pregnancies), 15 normotensive, and 10 preeclamptic gestations. In placental villi, the main sites of immunocytochemical expression of Ang-(1-7) and ACE2 were the syncytiotrophoblast, cytotrophoblast, endothelium and vascular smooth muscle of primary and secondary villi. Syncitial Ang-(1-7) expression in samples obtained from miscarriages and ectopic pregnancies was increased compared to normal term pregnancy [2.0 (2.0-2.25 for the 25 and 75% interquartile range) vs 1.3 (1.0-1.9), p<0.01]. In the maternal stroma, Ang-(1-7) and ACE2 were expressed in the invading and intravascular trophoblast and in decidual cells in all 3 groups. Ang-(1-7) and ACE2 staining was also found in arterial and venous endothelium and smooth muscle of the umbilical cord. The expression of Ang-(1-7) and ACE2 was similar in samples obtained from normal term or preeclamptic pregnancies, except for increased expression of ACE2 in umbilical arterial endothelium in preeclampsia [0.5 (0.5-0.8) vs 0.0 (0.0-0.0), p<0.01]. The uteroplacental location of Ang-(1-7) and ACE2 in pregnancy suggests an autocrine function of Ang-(1-7) in the vasoactive regulation that characterizes placentation and established pregnancy.