Molecular Features and Functional Constraints in the Evolution of the Mammalian X Chromosome

Crit Rev Biochem Mol Biol. Nov-Dec 2005;40(6):313-30. doi: 10.1080/10409230500356703.


Recent advances in genomic sequencing of multiple organisms have fostered significant advances in our understanding of the evolution of the sex chromosomes. The integration of this newly available sequence information with functional data has facilitated a considerable refinement of our conceptual framework of the forces driving this evolution. Here we address multiple functional constraints that were encountered in the evolution of the X chromosome and the impact that this evolutionary history has had on its modern behavior.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chromatin / physiology
  • Chromosomes, Mammalian / genetics*
  • Chromosomes, Mammalian / physiology*
  • Evolution, Molecular*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Meiosis / genetics
  • Meiosis / physiology
  • Mutation
  • X Chromosome / genetics*
  • X Chromosome / physiology*


  • Chromatin