Background: It is estimated that as many as 13 million cases of vulvovaginal infection occur in the United States annually, the majority of which are the result of Candida albicans infection. The symptoms of vulvovaginal infections are often painful and distressing to the patient. The objective of this study was to compare the time to symptomatic relief of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) with butoconazole nitrate 2% Site Release vaginal cream (Gynazole-1) and oral fluconazole 150 mg tablets (Diflucan).
Methods: This randomized, open-label, parallel study evaluated 181 female patients with moderate to severe symptoms of VVC. Patients were randomized to single-dose therapy with either butoconazole nitrate 2% Site Release vaginal cream or fluconazole. The primary outcome measure was the time to onset of first relief of symptoms. Secondary measures included the time to overall relief of symptoms and the reinfection rate over the first 30 days following treatment. The overall safety of both products was investigated through the collection of adverse event reports.
Results: The median time to first relief of symptoms occurred at 17.5 h for butoconazole patients as compared to 22.9 h for fluconazole patients (p < 0.001). The time at which 75% of patients experienced first relief of symptoms was 24.5 h versus 46.3 h for butoconazole and fluconazole, respectively (p < 0.001). By 12- and 24-h post-treatment, 44.4% and 72.8% of patients in the butoconazole treatment group reported first relief of symptoms versus 29.1% and 55.7% of patients in the fluconazole group (p = 0.044 and p = 0.024 respectively). In patients experiencing first relief of symptoms within 48 h of dosing, the median time to first relief of symptoms in the butoconazole treatment group was significantly shorter at 12.9 h compared to 20.7 h for the fluconazole treatment group (p = 0.048). There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to time to total relief of symptoms or reoccurrence of infection within 30 days of treatment. Butoconazole therapy was shown to have fewer reported adverse events, including drug-related adverse events, than fluconazole therapy. Vulvovaginal pruritus and vulvovaginal burning were the most common drug-related adverse events attributed to butoconazole. Headache, diarrhea, nausea, upset stomach and skin sensitivity were the most common drug-related adverse events attributable to fluconazole.
Conclusions: Single-dose butoconazole nitrate 2% Site Release vaginal cream provides statistically significant improvement in time to first relief of symptoms in the treatment of VVC compared to fluconazole. There is no difference between these two treatments with respect to total relief of symptoms or reinfection rate. Although there was no significant difference in the incidence of adverse events judged by the investigator to be treatment-related, butoconazole treatment did result in fewer patients experiencing adverse events than fluconazole.